The VVP technology also allows for LLD, Liquid Level Detection, in each channel for both the 96 and Fixed-8 Pipetting Tools. The system will create a flow rate of air and when the flow rate hits a solid meniscus, not sensing bubble, the system will record the volume of liquid below the tip. This happens in every tip in the 96 and Fixed-8 VVP tools calculating every volume in a plate.
With Method Manager control software it is also possible to calculate residual volumes more accurately by creating a direct volume versus height table within the software for each plate. The VVP tools may dispense 96 volumes into a plate, from low to high, and then go and LLD each liquid height to create a actual volume versus height database. This way a direct correlation as opposed to a calculation is used for residual volumes. This helps define volumes in plates where the wells may have multiple shapes and areas.